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Created by Dr. Xi on April 26, 2011 20:12:01    Last update: April 28, 2011 15:28:12
An XML schema is a definition of XML files, in XML. It plays the same role as old-time DTDs. Overall, an XML schema file looks like this: <schema attributeFormDefault = (qualified | u... The attribute meanings: targetNamespace : The name space targeted by the current schema definition. It can be any URI. id and version : For user convenience, the W3C spec defines no semantics for them. xml:lang : Natural language identifier defined by RFC 3306 . attributeFormDefault and elementFormDefault : Set default values for the form attribute for attribute and element declarations. blockDefault and finalDefault : Set default values for the block and final attributes for attribute and element declarations. The W3C defined some built-in datatypes . Examples of primitive datatypes are: string ,...
Created by Dr. Xi on March 28, 2011 11:11:33    Last update: March 28, 2011 11:13:21
grep is a versatile command with many variations (grep, egrep, fgrep, then various implementations). It uses a regula expression (regex) pattern to filter input. But then there are basic and extended flavors of regex - leading to even more confusion. And, beware that there are lots of bad examples of regex in the wild... There are two critical questions to ask when you use grep: which grep implementation are you using? what is the flavor of the regex? Here are some examples for gnu grep v2.7: # Find all numbers (no decimal point), basic regex... Use the -o flag to show only the matching part instead of the whole matching line: grep -o -E '\b[0-9]{2}\b' The good thing about the gnu grep is that it...
Created by voodoo on February 25, 2011 14:00:41    Last update: February 25, 2011 14:03:46
Suddenly my Windows XP failed to boot with this error message on a blank screen: missing or corrupt <windows root>\system32\hal.dll I took out the hard drive, put it in a USB enclosure and attached it to another PC. Then I ran CHKDSK and it fixed some file system errors. But I did find that hal.dll was intact, so hal.dll was not missing or corrupt . It turned out that the file that was really missing was C:\boot.ini . It is a hidden file, so you have to use attrib boot.ini to see it. The file is missing if attrib boot.ini returns nothing (run in the root folder C:\). In my case I reconstructed the boot.ini file: [boot loader] timeout=30 default=multi(0)dis... and changed the attributes back...
Created by Dr. Xi on December 04, 2009 04:33:05    Last update: December 04, 2009 04:33:05
Variable Meaning $_ The default or implicit variable. @_ Within a subroutine the array @_ contains the parameters passed to that subroutine. $a, $b Special package variables when using sort() $<digit> Contains the subpattern from the corresponding set of capturing parentheses from the last pattern match, not counting patterns matched in nested blocks that have been exited already. $. Current line number for the last filehandle accessed. $/ The input record separator, newline by default. $| If set to nonzero, forces a flush right away and after every write or print on the currently selected output channel. Default is 0 (regardless of whether the channel is really buffered by the system or not; $| tells you only whether you've asked Perl explicitly to flush after...
Created by Dr. Xi on September 29, 2008 23:03:40    Last update: September 29, 2008 23:04:08
Variables set automatically by shell: Variable Description $# Number of command-line arguments. $- Options currently in effect (arguments supplied to sh or to set). $? Exit value of last executed command. $$ Process number of current process. $! Process number of last background command. $0 First word; that is, command name. $n Individual arguments on command line (positional parameters). The Bourne shell allows only nine parameters to be referenced directly (n = 1-9); the Korn shell allows n to be greater than 9 if specified as ${n}. $* All arguments on command line ("$1 $2..."). $@ All arguments on command line, individually quoted ("$1" "$2" ...). Variables set automatically by Korn shell: Variable Description ERRNO Error number of last system call that failed. LINENO Current...