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Created by Dr. Xi on January 31, 2011 16:24:31    Last update: January 31, 2011 16:24:58
Perl file test operators are unary operators that takes one argument, which can be a file name, a filehandle, or dirhandle. If the argument is omitted, it tests $_ , except for -t , which tests STDIN. Syntax: -X FILEHANDLE -X EXPR -X DIRHANDLE -X where X is: Operator Meaning -r File is readable by effective uid/gid. -w File is writable by effective uid/gid. -x File is executable by effective uid/gid. -o File is owned by effective uid. -R File is readable by real uid/gid. -W File is writable by real uid/gid. -X File is executable by real uid/gid. -O File is owned by real uid. -e File exists. -z File has zero size (is empty). -s File has nonzero size (returns size in bytes)....
Created by Dr. Xi on September 29, 2008 23:21:38    Last update: January 16, 2010 23:36:05
Create a startup script for inetd Copy /etc/init.d/skeleton to /etc/init.d/inetd . Change the top section of the script to read: PATH=/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin DESC="In... Now inetd can be stopped/started/restarted like this: sudo /etc/init.d/inetd stop sudo /etc/init.... Add links to rc*.d $ sudo update-rc.d inetd defaults Adding sy... If you no longer need to start inetd at boot up: $ sudo update-rc.d -f inetd remove update-r... This would remove the links from the start up sequence but leave /etc/init.d/inetd in place. Contents of /etc/init.d/skeleton : #! /bin/sh ### BEGIN INIT INFO # Provide...
Created by Dr. Xi on October 01, 2008 23:13:51    Last update: October 01, 2008 23:14:51
Run levels locations Level Location 0 /etc/rc0.d 1 /etc/rc1.d 2 /etc/rc2.d 3 /etc/rc3.d 4 /etc/rc4.d 5 /etc/rc5.d 6 /etc/rc6.d Standard run levels ID Name Description 0 Halt Shuts down the system. S Single-User Mode Does not configure network interfaces or start daemons. 6 Reboot Reboots the system. Debian Linux (Ubuntu) ID Description 0 Halt 1 Single user mode 2-5 Full multi-user with console logins and display manager if installed 6 Reboot Red Hat Linux (Fedora) ID Description 0 Halt 1 Single user 2 Not used/User definable 3 Full multi-user, console logins only 4 Not used/User definable 5 Full multi-user, with display manager as well as console logins 6 Reboot
Created by Dr. Xi on September 29, 2008 23:03:40    Last update: September 29, 2008 23:04:08
Variables set automatically by shell: Variable Description $# Number of command-line arguments. $- Options currently in effect (arguments supplied to sh or to set). $? Exit value of last executed command. $$ Process number of current process. $! Process number of last background command. $0 First word; that is, command name. $n Individual arguments on command line (positional parameters). The Bourne shell allows only nine parameters to be referenced directly (n = 1-9); the Korn shell allows n to be greater than 9 if specified as ${n}. $* All arguments on command line ("$1 $2..."). $@ All arguments on command line, individually quoted ("$1" "$2" ...). Variables set automatically by Korn shell: Variable Description ERRNO Error number of last system call that failed. LINENO Current...